Masaryk University in Brno


Historical Institute

Mahler in Německý Brod

Bachelor thesis
Prepared by: Michal Kamp

Thesis supervisor: Mgr. Martin Markel, Ph.D.

Brno 2007

I declare that I have independently researched this bachelor thesis and cite all literature and sources used.

My great thanks to workers at the archives of Havlíčkův Brod, prof. Jiří Rychetskému, Dr. Zdenek Mahler, Mr. Francis Ryvola, the Land Registry Office at Havlíčkův Brod, and Dr. Martin Markelo without whose great help this work would hardly have been completed.

May 2007

Translated from Czech mostly using Google Translate
Download original document here.


The issue of sources and concepts of the text
Německý Brod 1848-1948
1. Entrepreneurs
1.1. Beginnings
1.2. "Filip Mahler & Son"
1.3. "Mahler Brothers"
1.4. "PLEASE"
2. Heirs
2.1. Josef Mahler
2.2. Willym Mahler
Picture Appendix
Sources and Literature


The Bohemian-Moravian Highlands never were among the richest regions that became the Czech lands; quite the contrary, they have always been very poor. They are hilly, and in the nineteenth century agriculture was difficult and thus industry and manufacturing areas arose. But the local soil conditions of the Highlands in those areas that became primarily agricultural permitted some crops, dominated by potatoes, wheat, and oilseed rape. Conditions also led to the Highlands becoming home to a number of medium-sized Czech towns and only one true city—the formerly German Jihlava.

Discovery of silver in the Middle Ages and the subsequent possible loss of any industrial potential of the land led to Czechicized cities in the Highlands and by the mid-nineteenth century, all of them looked almost identical. The towns of Hlinsko, Humpolec, Žďár, Chotěboř, Velké Meziříčí, and Polička were about 400 meters above sea level with populations of about five thousand inhabitants, who were mainly occupied with agriculture or working in urban occupations (crafts and industrial). The towns had local breweries several mills, especially textile, in the second half of the century. By the century's end they gradually developed footwear manufacture Poličce zmáhala Till's and later in Feuerstein a weaving workshop, furriers in Hlinsku, Soukenka Kallabů brothers (1851) and the shoe factory in the Tita Kršky Meziříčí,1 mechanical weaving Antonína Laciny ve Ždírci in a particular "Czech Manchester," in which flourished mainly cloth.2

Německý Brod was somewhere between a small town and a city in character and it is therefore not surprising that even here the conditions existed for the emergence of textile enterprises. We mention for example the knitted goods factory of Jan Vesely, Stiassny and Bauer brothers and son. But one of them became very important regionally thanks to a family that maintained its origins and subsequent operations and development, but failed to survive in the Czech lands as a result of the harsh conditions of the time caused by the Nazi occupation and Communist government regime. The reputation of the Jewish Mahler family was widely known in eastern Bohemia. One of their branches, in the year 1860, came to the city then known as Německý Brod, and divided into two branches of relatives where one developed into owners of a huge factory enterprise manufacturing knitwear and exporting large amounts of its products while the other branch became successful in the merchant community as general store operators and later flour merchants. This work will focus on the businesses and lives of the Německy Brod Mahlers and will also try to ascertain their impact on the life of the city during the period, and on their impact on the development of modern Havlíčkův Brod.

The issue of sources and concepts of the text

Although the Německy Brod Mahlers were purely regional personalities, we can find many traces of their lives and especially their origins in the works relating to the most famous and most important member of the family—Gustav Mahler. A huge number of publications of historical, biographical and cultural interest have been written about him in several languages, and no doubt many more are still to be written, since his life is still of great interest. Although this important composer came from a branch of the family who lived in Jihlava, no biography of his life should end the interest in many common ancestors of the Německy Brod Mahlers. The importance and significance of Gustav casts a shadow over the identity and the importance of the other Mahlers who remain unjustly anonomous so long in the background, hidden behind his name.

Historical material containing information on the Německy Brod Mahlers can be divided into several categories, according to where it is housed. The State District Archives in Havlíčkův Brod contains much information on the properties of the city and family. One of the most valuable real estate purchase contracts until 1925 (as found in the records office of Havlíčkův Brod), which accurately shows the Mahlers' arrival in the city, their gradual increase of assets, and repeated property sales as they moved around the city. With that information, coupled with the study of old photographs of the city, we see that the buildings owned by the Mahlers appear rather incidently, since they were not a direct target of the camera's viewfinder. The houses of Filip Mahler, No. 40 and 41, are clearly a case in point and we now rely only on descriptions of this historical place, as this building succumbed in the nineteen-sixties to an extensive demolition in preparation for the building of new prefabricated houses. Also preserved are plans for factory conversions and extensions by the Mahler brothers allowing us to see the changes that were made to their factory. The Presidiální District Office files contain Německý Brod, unfortunately, since during the 20th century clear records of unemployment and problems with the workers is lacking. On the other hand, there is a lot of critical private material. Records of correspondence is zero, contemporary regional newspapers contain only items of news interest (fires, death, ...) and covers Německy Brod after 1900. We learned more information from the census years 1880-1921. Little is known of individual citizens' homes, including numbers of servants and livestock. We only have the gross data that show how the houses were occupied for decades.

The State Regional Archives in Zámrsk contains archive material of the firm PLEAS, which was located on the factory grounds of "Mahler Brothers." Most important, it contains information for the years 1916-1948, which includes the time range of this work. The majority of the records do not include the period of the Second World War and post-war development, as Dr. Karel Paštika was very careful in the conduct of business and left a large amount of business correspondence.

To learn about actual everyday life and determine the family relationships of the Mahlers we must review private collections. The Gustav Mahler Society, through the diligence of prof. Jiřího Rychetského from Humpolec, prepared an extensive family tree in the greatest detail. Mr. Milič Jiráček, in contrast, compiled a theme-inventory of Josef Mahler and, as in the case of Mrs. Věry Beránkové, we can find descriptions from witnesses who worked in the factory, who either knew Mahler personally or experienced the difficult period of the factory during the war and just after it.

There remain records we didn't review from the regional court in Kutné Hoře, under whose jurisdiction Německý Brod falls; these records represent an opportunity for further investigation.

As for our actual plan, we first outline the political, social, and particularly the economic conditions in Německý Brod during the period treated in this work. The text is divided into chapters named according to the trades of both families. This division is intended to simplify the portrayal of the life of the Německý Brod Mahlers. The actual development and a comparison of the differences of all three generations of the family is then summarized at the end. Two chapters on Willym and Josef Mahler go somewhat beyond this concept, since they only deal with these unique characters and the interesting lives of both men. The Picture Appendix will help unify some ideas much better than the text and includes a geneological relationship chart. It's necessary to mention that the chart displays only those family members who are referred to in this work.

Německý Brod 1848-19483

Today Havlíčkův Brod is proudly committed to its most famous inhabitant (not native), Karlu Havlíčkovi; the fact that he was a journalist in the city after his return from exile seems to have been forgotten. Overlooked and ignored was the time spent with his brother Františka before he went to work and receive treatment in Prague, where he subsequently died of tuberculosis.

Brod, however, this approach is not surprising, for four years has changed a lot. The regime was tough and Brod began in 1848 after an unprecedented flourish economically and culturally. I really did not pay again to support the lone journalist divisive as ever. Yes, with the abolition of serfdom in the nineteenth century, the freed workers flowed into the city. Just two years after the revolutionary year, the city became the seat of the district executive, district court and berního office. The old city was replaced by the municipality with an elected board, headed by a mayor.

The end of the eighteen-fifties brought after the fall of the Bach absolutism and the issuance of a charter next October's recovery, especially in the field of public life. Primarily non-political associations such as singing Jason (founded 1859), Citizens' discussion (1864), TJ Sokol (1868), craft forum (1871) and the Volunteer Firemen (1872) were created. With the spread of national consciousness reflected by, for example, the 1873 protirakouskou demonstration school for the students, citizens celebrated the 25th anniversary of the reign of Emperor Franz Joseph I.

During the war with Prussia in 1866, Německý Brod became the place of accommodation for some of the Prussian army.4 After the war's end, the construction of a railway to the northwest, a line from Prague to Vienna, started 26 January 1869. Regular service to Cologne was launched 9 December 1870 and a year later work began on another line, to the southwest, in the direction of Pardubice and Hradec Králové.5 As a result, the city has an extensive railway station and later became a rail hub with train connections to Brno and Humpolec.

In the First World War the people of Německý Brod experienced conditions as cruel as anywhere else. Already at the beginning of the war, there were 400 unemployed, increased costs, requisitions of food for military purposes, and a growing scarcity in the market resulting in malnutrition, especially among the poorest strata of the population. It is therefore clear that civil unrest would quickly ensue—major tumultuous demonstrations of the textile work force occurred on 31 March 1917, and a subsequent engagement of the demonstrators with armed state forces occurred on 6 and 8 August 1917. The supply of food continued to deteriorate until the end of the war. Its end, on 28 October, was therefore greeted boisterously, with the raising of red flags, cheering crowds of people, and of course signs showing Austrian characters. These were, together with images of emperors and other symbols of the old Empire, burned in the square. A day later, the Board established a socialist government.

The enthusiasm of the first days of the Republic was suddenly followed by the need to restore the economic conditions of pre-war times, as well as better living standards. Problems began to emerge again when riots broke out over the lack of food. On 8 January 1919, about six hundred protestors ransacked grocery stores and stopped only after four hundred soldiers from Jihlava and Caslav appeared to control the situation. A ban on public assembly was declared. There was no major surprise that in the local elections in 1919 the Social Democrats won and the head of the city became the left-wing Social Democrat Josef Husa. A general strike on 11 December 1920 quite obviously demonstrated his strong left-wing thinking; the strike stopped work in all Německy Brod factories. After 1921 the city began to grow as a result of the Communist Party's pressing post-war social issues. This period was characterized by radically leftist tendencies; between 1929-1938 there were protest demonstrations against unemployment and other demonstrations after 1933 were against fascism.

In the late thirties there were signs among the urban population of a growing dissatisfaction with the dangers of fascism and the fight with the activity in nearby henleinovské SdP ethnically mixed communities. The May mobilization united party against the separatist tendencies of the German population, especially when on 7 August 1938, a large manifesto speech defending the Republic was delivered in Brodsky Square. Days Munich manifestations vygradovaly, when the population and the workers of all the factories expressed their resolutions and conducted a spontaneous march in the city and the camp people 22 September of their intention to defend the autonomy and integrity of the Republic. Truncated "second republic" has seen a growing open skirmish between the Czech and German population around the city, most pronounced in the first days of March 1939.

Arrival of the occupying German army was welcomed only by force in the town. The German Gestapo immediately established Oberlandrat controlling activities offices and courts in Brod. On 1 November the district office was closed and Brod, with the surrounding communities, was associated with Humpolec. The presence of foreign troops, of course, the people were unable to accept, but two illegal organizations (as defending the nation, as an illegal organization CPC) that were operating since 1939 were, within two years, completely dismantled. In 1943, the Germans took over the leadership of the Brod town office and place of the existing Mayor Josef Sindelar, the government appointed as Commissioner Münzbergera Herrmann. He decided to remove a monument to Karel Havlicek Borovsky. He also introduced German as an official language. Prisons and concentration camps devoured many people and because of the Brod airport on the outskirts of the city, the city became exposed, until the end of the war, to air raids, with bombs not always accurately hitting their target. At the end of the war a partisan group, operated by Master Jan Hus, was operating. Its activity in March 1945 resulted in the passage of acts by the National Committee prohibiting their illegal activities. The May uprising swept Německý Brod, where on 5 May the flag of Czechoslovakia was raised and all German inscriptions were removed. Before assembled people in the square, by the declaration of the National Committee and its chairman Anthony Šouba, the new name of the city, Havlíčkův Brod, was adopted. Enthusiasm from the end of the war and the resistance to the Germans had resulted in an armed nationalist resistance to the Nazis seeking rather probit captured U.S. Army in the west. The Germans immediately occupied the town hall that day and began armed reprisals against the population. They were the first dead. Martial law lasted until the evening of 8 May, when the fear of the advancing Red Army caused a German stampede out of the city. Russian troops first set foot in Brod on the morning of 9 May.

War, as always, brought only destruction and so it was here in 1945. Car wrecks, ruined houses, and in particular damaged communications were a major concern. In the spring of 1946, after the voluntary brigádnických hours most people of Havlíčkův Brod were visibly recovered and by 4 to 7 July they were able to host a celebration in honor of the 90th anniversary of the death of Havlíčkovy journalistic genius. The citizens proudly known for its legacy. Elections in 1946 were marked by most of the other CPC and then Havlíčkův Brod embarked on its next important phase of its history, the image and life of the city were heavily modified brodských nationalization of enterprises, development of transport (especially bus6) and the incipient housing development.

As already noted, Německý Brod is no different from other cities of the agrarian Highlands. In the late 19th century craftsmen predominated especially around the city, farmers having their fields. The profit is funneled primarily from agricultural production. However, railway construction accelerated industrialization, primarily in the textile industry. The first factory of the company named "Josef Etrich and Sons" from Trutnov was founded in 1860 producing flax products. But we are more interested in the creation, thirteen years later in Svatovojtěšské street, of an enterprise of Josef Mahler. Another, a cloth factory, was launched by brothers Josef and Ignatius Stiassných. Ferdinand Trapl began a spinning mill in 1887 for sheep wool and cotton on the site of the demolished Rosendorfského mill, and in the same year there appeared a "knitted goods factory" by Jan Vesely and a firm named "Albert Bauer and Son" started a cloth factory. After the First World War, the company of Ervína Löwy moved from Pribyslav to Německý Brod, and began production of sports and knitted goods.7 After these developments, in the 1890s social unrest began to break out among the workers in the town. The first demonstration strike was held 1 May 1890, when of the total number of workers in Brod's factories, 1286, almost half participated. The reason was to improve the living conditions of the workers.

The interwar boom of the 1920s helped further the prosperity of the industries and fueled the influx of people into the city. Between 1920-21 Brod had began their own electrical plant and launched a massive electrification project.

From factories nationalized after the war was the most PLEAS, which until 1948 was expanded to include nearly 70 other businesses around it and the entire leadership moved to Jihlava. The 1949 decision of the Ministry of Industry established a national enterprise knitting factories Karel Havlíček Borovsky, based in Havlíčkův Brod.

1. Entrepreneurs

1.1 Beginnings

If we are searching for the beginning of the Mahlers we must look to Emperor Joseph II and his command to give the Jewish population surnames for official use.8 Abrahám the Jew (c. 1720-1800), still maintained his traditional name in 1783 after his father Jakub; the records of ten years later list him as Abrahám Mahler. The reason for his name was probably the reluctance and opposition officials responsible for devising names had, and thus vilified the Jews by naming them according to their activity observed during their visit. And they probably observed Abrahám Jakub grinding grain; the German mahlen then became his name as well as that of his future descendants.9

The branches of the Mahlers lived in the 18th and 19th century Central and Eastern Bohemia along the river Sázava. Šimon Mahler, a grandson of Abrahám, was born in 179310 in Chmelné. He wasn't the eldest and therefore was not heir to his father's property. Without the permission of the nobility he married Maria Bondy of Lipnice and moved to Německý Brod. His marriage was legalized in 184811 so they could be registered as married and his children could adopt the surname of the father. Until then, Šimon was fined and was called upon by the authorities to emigrate. In 1827, after the birth of their first son, Bernarda, he moved to nearby Kaliste. Here there were born the other nine children; those important for Brod, Josef (1830) and Filip (1835). Maria's father was a butcher in Lipnice, later a distiller and it seems therefore logical that Šimon and his wife would buy the house in Kaliště No. 52 and produce their own alcohol. For the year, they could produce up to 90 hectoliters of differently prepared and flavored brandy and his sons helped to deliver the alcohol in a horse-drawn carriage, sometimes very far. Even Maria made Scud spirit wore in the surrounding villages along with other things for sale (thread, scissors, knives, spices, etc) as an itinerant merchant, and offered to sell to anyone who expressed an interest. Though the family tried, they were unable to support themselves. For example, Bernarda, on his sales trips to Znojmo, repeatedly slept in Jihlava and wanted to move. Similarly smýšleli his younger brothers, though not always the largest city of Highlands. The second milestone year for the family was twelve years later, when the decision of 186012 of Emperor Franz Josef I allowed the Jews in the cities to acquire property. That motivated them to leave Kaliste and showed a promising way for the future. Bernarda, the eldest of the sons and heir of trades at that time, was already married and with their own vinopalnou left with his wife and two sons13 for Jihlava, where he devoted himself to the sale of alcohol. There he was eventually succeeded by younger brother David and other relatives who, without exception, devoted themselves to trade.

Second also going to nearby Německý Brod, a former liege, and from 1637 a royal city, just having the privilege to suffer in 1860 on its soil inhabitant of the Jewish religion.14 A Mahler was apparently the first of the Jews for centuries to move to Německý Brod and more followed them. Over the centuries, the city dwellers were accustomed to and were probably proud of the absence of a Jewish population; suddenly this situation changed one day and now Jews could live in a house across the street. It is no wonder that these new burghers did not at all please the residents, even though Jews needed, they did not want to report. Their efforts to change the original conditions but sounded flat. The Mahlers bought a house in Německý Brod in a suburb on the Horním No. 41,15 at the intersection of today's Dobrovského and Hus streets. This acquisition was not without problems and you vygradovaly in finding that the seller is a famous monastery gardener Frantisek Vanecek.16 This house is no longer standing; it was demolished in the nineteen-sixties because of its construction, but from old photographs and the cadastral map17 it is clear that it was a narrow, two-story house, not very handsome. The initial operation of the trade and family accommodation here was not enough. Šimon began to deal with operations in the nearby Kaliste—alcohol, food, small items of daily use. In essence, this was was a typical grocery store, and a year later expanded sales střižního goods.

Šimon, however, died in 1865 but had accomplished a great deal of work that secured his family and also ensured its prosperity. Just before his death, on 30 April, bought a house for his fourth son, Filip (born December 15, 1834) and decided to operate the business. His eldest son Josef (born September 20, 1830) on 26 May 1857 married a wealthy widow from Polné, Barboru Neumann, born Federovou, and brought home a fortune. He helped his father expand trade and at his death was able to buy a house in town. This was House No. 10 in Horní Street, for which the owner paid 975 gold coins—from one Marii Vorlové, and set up shop there.18 From this moment, in 1865, began the division of the Německy Brod Mahlers into two branches—the life, work and descendants of Josef and Filip. The two families shared their Jewish religion and spoke among themselves in German, not Czech out família.19

1.2 "Filip Mahler & Son"

Filip Mahler, as a businessman and, over time, became known as a highly respected person, became the direct successor of the family business. He was eleven years younger wife of Josef Golčův Jeníkov time and buy the house from their parents waited their first child. Finally had nine sons and several daughters. We can say that the younger brother in the business financially supported Josef because he 30 April 1869, that is exactly four years after independence, Filip bought another house, No. 40, whose south wall joined the original Mahler house and the two were joined together in one unit.20 Shortly after coming out one of his sons, Artur (July 14, 1870), which in future will take over his father's business. It is however more than assuming that his father helped with the operation of the business of all sons before they separated.

The fate of Maria, widow of Šimon, in 1865, after21 she returned to her native Lipnice, where she continued her peddling business, enjoying the familial name "Mameha" (matriarch) and deep concern for her neighborhood. It was stepped up after her visit to the emperor, which came thanks to his descendants and relatives living in Vienna. Her trade was hurt and she had to stop selling because a new police agency threatened to fine or imprison her for an expired trade certificate. The Emperor pardoned her, back to back as a heroine and a triumph celebrated with relatives from all around. In time, sickness and old age came, and Maria could no longer perform any work. Lived his life for his son Filip in the Německý Brod and 15 died September 1883. Buried, like her husband, Šimon, in Humpolec at the Jewish cemetery.

Since the eighteen-eighties, Filip's ability was starting to show success as an entrepreneurial merchant. For example, in the business directory of Německý Brod of 189322 we find just below the tabs a few—and the Spirits výčepniny, plants, groceries, businessman of flax and shearing products. You can see it as a broad scope, it is difficult to define Filip's business any single concept. But it is clear that trying to be flexible in supply and demand and nezakrněl in activities at one point.

Businesslike feeling and experience bore fruit and Filip could afford to buy more property. It was a warehouse on the outskirts of the Lower Německý Brod, which according to the contracts Trhové of 24 April and 22 October arranged on the spot next to the railway station.23 And perhaps it is this building was the first reason why Filip decided to leave the current way of living and slowly switch to trading in one field. The Business Directory of 190324 shows his business has become just as merchandise, and eleven years later, it is under the new name "Mahler and his son Filip, warehouses and flour a foreign national." Therefore two important facts are clear: Of all the people obviously took the most Artur came on paper and in the family business and Filip finally fully streamlined focus its merchant activities.

Artur was about thirty when he became heir to his father's business. In 1900, he still lived with his wife Julií (born 1877 in Mlada Boleslav, née Stein), two children—Hildou (b. 1898), Karlem (b. 1899) and two servants in his native home in Německý Brod, although his older siblings gradually left to go into the world. Only his younger brother Mořic, who became parents through the wealth medicine doctor (dentist), owned between the years 1908 to 1916 House No. 208 in the Upper suburbs, but otherwise lived in Vienna. Artur, however, remained in Brod throughout his life. For his complicity trade continued to grow, albeit slightly shaken in 1908 by three bad events in the warehouse:

A fire caused by a cigarette butt from a laborer from Lorence occurred on 31 December 1907, but it was quickly extinguished and did not cause major damage.25

On the night of 28 July, two thieves took bags of flour but were spotted and fled after abandoning the plunder. According to the investigation the perpetrators of the crime were very familiar, "go for sure and have a good passkey." It was not from Mahler that they tried to steal from first.26

The most tragic event took place on Saturday, 1 August, when visiting relatives of Karlem in Vienna, the son of Artur and Karlem, the son of Mořic Mahler MD in Vienna, played in the warehouse to lift ban on flour, despite their uncle Rudolfa rides on it. Karlem from Vienna, however, driving up and leaned his back of his head hit the passing carrier beam. He suffered three broken cervical vertebrae and a broken spinal cord, and thirteen-year-old Karlem was on the ground dead. He was buried in the Německý Brod Catholic Cemetery with a large number of people present, especially a surprisingly large number of high school students.27

If I had one way to outline the social life of the Filip branch of the Mahlers, I have to mention their great contribution to the organization and management of the Jewish religious community in Německý Brod, where, after 1860, their numbers gradually increased. The growing Jewish population in 1888 led to the establishment of their own Jewish cemetery and thus became independent of Humpolec. Filip and his brother Josef became co-founders of the cemetery together with other prominent personalities of Německý Brod. Filip and Artur were regularly elected as místostarostové Jewish community directly as they stood at the large community disputes with Czech burghers. Brod's citizens, by the late 19th century, began to adjust to and respect the Jewish immigrants, but not their němectví. The Německy Brod citizens were proud of their Czech national consciousness, in contrast to the German/Austrian-centric Jihlava, and forced the Jews to be alike. They were accused of behaving just like Czechs in their occupations and trade, but not in their private lives—in pubs, in schools, in public assembly. The Czech language was expected to be given priority in all manner of expression and communication, including religious speech and religious rules. Modlitebnách public inscriptions in Hebrew should also be placed next to the Czech version of the text. The Czechs also resented the presence of a German-Jewish school. Generally speaking, the Czechs were trying to instill from the beginning of the Jewish population the sentiment and spirit of the Czech national revival, becoming as the Czechs (rather than the Germans) and enjoy a greater esteem. Provisions of the Bureau of religious communities is a logical cause and reverse the concentration of these requirements on their shoulders.28

Perhaps it is this pressure, or resistance to the memory of Jews from the eighteen-sixties caused minimal involvement by the Mahlers in prewar public and political life of the city. They cared only for their own safety and the unity of the Jewish community in the city against possible attacks.

After 1910, it can be assumed that Filip as a participant in merchant activities fades into the background and leaves full power in the hands of Artur, when he sold, on 8 June 1915, House No. 40.29 At that time, Artur had already expanded by another family descendant, Willym Otto, future major Mahler in completely different direction of work. Filip is thought to have lived in the house No. 41. Josef's wife died here on 13 October 1916 followed by Filip two years later at the age of 84 years. Both are buried in the Jewish cemetery of Havlíčkův Brod.

Any records of the trades of Artur Mahler during the interwar period are not mentioned in the archives nor the district office of the district court. Aside from the "hunger" storm of 8 January 1919, when Artur's business could have been directly affected (or even looted), we report that he suffered no serious or significant event. Family had lived in welfare, peace and enjoying growing success as merchants. In 1939, however, came the occupation and suddenly everything was different.

The arrival of Germans in the city brought with it the gradual application of the Nuremberg laws. Descendants of Filip Mahler had the good fortune as their relatives and factory owners could not move overseas. The command then began to be hampered by their merchant business. Increasingly felt in cultured growing gap between Jews and non-Jews—whether to ban visits were "Aryan" barbers, can sell their goods only equals, or vilification of Jews in the most typical form of wearing two yellow stars of David on the shoulder and chest clothing. But all could survive. Any inhumane conditions, behavior and humiliation of going through a strong will stand. But in January 1942 and negotiations in the so-called Wannsee deliver the definitive solution of the Jewish Question and it was little defense. The systematic destruction of Jews and people affected by Německý Brod. Artur and Julií were deported to Terezín 10 June 1942 and their sons Willym and Karlem five days later.

In Terezín the inhuman conditions of life soon took Artur by 5 April 1944 and he succumbed to dysentery. His wife Julií resisted all hardships in the former residence of the fort, but eventually even her body could not endure the local life and Julií, just before the end of the war, 2 May 1945, died. Willym was with his family in Terezin to 28 September 1944, when he was transported to Auschwitz. From there already returned.30

Somewhat difficult to fathom is the fate of Karlem, who was taken to Theresienstadt, but his return is shrouded in question marks.31 After the war he was transferred to his father's name property, but Karlem is known about him. Filip descendants to Havlíčkův Brod never returned home and No. 40 and 41 and after less than a hundred years moved completely different people.

1.3 "Mahler Brothers"

About Filip's brother Josef are already a couple of mentions fell. He was older than Filip, but did not inherit the business. He married a rich widow from Polné and moved into the house No. 10 in Městě, where he set up his own shop. But his brother and neseparoval beginnings helped him financially. Josef had enough money from his wife. Eight years successfully led the grocery store and then in October 1873 bought the entire 3000 gold (until then the most expensive purchase of the Mahlers) further, this time a very large, House No. 45 for Upper suburbs.32 And this house just is tied up the entire history of the second branch of the Brod Mahlers.

Josef had the house with their plans. Later that year, it establishes a knitting company called his name "Josef Mahler." It was primarily a dye and weaving, and found a job there a few people. A few years later, in 1887, the company comes Josef, son Willym and the name is changed to "Josef Mahler and Son." Willym's position in any case not negligible. Can say that in the eighteen-nineties had a great influence in the factory, which shows an advertising brochure from 1892,33 in which the whole company and its services acts only as "Willym Mahler." Father's name is not mentioned here already, and it can be concluded that Josef with advancing age remains in the background—leaves a son to run the factory, but the word in the most important decisions carefully guarded. He is due in 1895, when 17 July converts an official certificate from Mahler's house No. 45 on plant and machinery in that its integral part.34 Not surprisingly, business is no longer a dyeing workshop with the weaving, but is extended to the production fields of processing and treatment of yarn and knitting wool or cotton in different colors. Logically, increased the number of workers on the sixty.35

A year later to enter trades and another son, Viktor. The factory has since been called the "factory knitwear Mahler Brothers" and Josef feels that his role in the management of the company ended. Viktor entry pass to all share two sons in a one to one. Josef and live for a happy retirement and died in 1899 as a recognized and honorable Německy Brod citizen.

First steps of plant in the twentieth century is marked by fraternal cooperation of Willym and Viktor. Lay before them a complex task, business has been since the nineties heyday in the fast, it needed to keep pace and nezahálet. And started really big. Municipal Authority in August 1900 submitted plans to build residential buildings for workers and the application for the position of the outbuilding ku washing yarn, stables, outhouses, increase the oven in the courtyard and ground floor. Also began to think about the new headquarters for Mahler, who were the only ones now in the factory lived.

And if I mention the seat, so it's meant literally. 25 May 1907 the brothers came from the city of Mahler's permission to build single-story villa next door factory. Plans and ensure implementation of the architect Karlem Brodsky Ješina, but probably not the author of the architectural design itself.36 Building, it is truly unique. The building has an irregular ground plan, approximately square available for the west side with protruding wings. Front east side disrupts Shiplap central buttress, which alone has a light plaster, but the brick structure. To him is asymmetrically added slightly protruding tower plastered. Northeast corner of the first floor level is enriched by the five-sided bay window topped onion-shaped roof. Facade broken horizontal stucco bands, cornices are decorated with trappings and the southern wall at a height first floor, there are stucco sundial.

Diversity does not allow elements of the villa still fit neatly into any building style. It is in fact a patchwork of elements Romance mixing with Gothic, Renaissance and Baroque. Along with the battlements on the southern side of the house, and are placed vertical flag waving, it seems that the whole building is an excursion into the time of medieval castles, but the attentive viewer can see the many features of modern (English Art and Crafts in the form of asymmetry, stained-glass "bay windows, gray walls), in other words Electrorings style. Vila Mahler Brothers, as is now known, was completed 10 December 190837 and in two quite identical, but separate dwellings to Wilhelm and Viktor with their families move. Since then the exhibition were established, demonstrating great prosperity and strength of their business.

But not everything was happy in 1908. Construction of a beautiful villa was certainly an event to which the whole family enjoyed. But straight from the region, 27 January, before seven o'clock in the evening rang the factory whistle steam whistle, accompanied by another from a neighboring factory "Jan Vesely and Sons" and alarm bells in the Německy Brod church tower. The factory ku knitting yarn and knitted goods Mahler Brothers fire. The fire started in the bottom floor of the center wing factory at pískárny reservoirs and knitwear, which dominated all the rooms and then penetrated into the first floor. For associations of volunteer firemen, it was a great event and an opportunity to demonstrate their quality and art. Furthermore Německy Brod, rode the corps from nearby and distant villages (The look Knyk, Hurtova Lhota, Poděbaby, Lipa, Vesely Zdar) and dedicated newspaper emphasized the importance Brod help people, especially the very Mayor Edward Šubrta.38 firemen and volunteers to reduce hours of fire the factory itself and prevent the spread of the surrounding houses, but more particularly on the adjacent gasworks. But even so, the fire itself factory firefighters battling all night until the early morning hours. Two people took slightly injured, but damage to property Mahler Brothers were significant, albeit covered by insurance.

Factory but she worked on. Just in April the same year he drew up the plan for reconstruction of burned-out building space, also can be enriched with new additions.39 Other big plans to expand to continue to pursue until 1914. For example, from 12 October 1911 to townspeople object to the application Mahler of taking water from the river Sázava.40 Radical positions were not and could thus be set up 2.5 m deep well at filtering enabled Sázava water consumption up to 50 m³ per day. Followed by the construction of a new warehouse in the factory yard, apartment for a coachman and gardener, shed building for stables.41 One of the original stores and attics have been converted to two working rooms, a dry kiln became bělírnou Stables and eventually changed to forge locksmith shop enriched electric blower.42 In September 1914 yet engine room began to build a new shed, but the war prevented any development required a full deployment in production for imperial army. At that time the factory employed over 300 people in 250 knitting machines.43

Have enough sad situation and standard of living during the First World War brought the beginning of 1916 a major family tragedy—28 Viktor died in January Mahler, co-owner of a factory Mahler Brothers. Its demise (of nearly 45 years) survivors rumors began to business continuity. Viktor had two minor sons—Hanus and Josef, both designated as heir, who took custody of their uncle and godfather Leopold, a factory in Jihlava.44 The Leopold, representing Hanus and Josef, and Willym was the 16 June 1916 agreement to buy back all the inherited half the factory for Willym 84 000 crowns.45

For years, the business (still officially known as the "factory ku knitting yarn and knitted goods Mahler Brothers in Německý Brod") led a power of attorney Willym Mahler himself (or was it a majority share) was probably the most important and most general. This helped a lot and post-war boom.46 Willym decided to establish where his brother were forced to stop because of the war. And it is most vibrant examples of the new incoming expansion was the completion of engine in 1921 (started 1914) and increased pletařského field on its own knitting factory production machines (known in the future as "Bramah" and used not only in Czechoslovakia but also abroad).47 This was but are the first steps on a new path, production increased to more intrusive two years later, when the authorized construction of a large hall in the manufacture and repair of machines, including replacement of metal parts.48

All took place at a time when Leopold was dead and his adult godson Hanus and Josef is probably moved to his uncle Wilhelm to Německý Brod. Willym the families deal with serious dilemma—it could have with his wife Hedwig offspring, and thus left with no choice but to offer his nephews share a factory to keep the business in family hands. Eventually became what was irresistible: 6 October 1925 came Willym Mahler and his wife Hedwig as the owners of factories, "Mahler Brothers and sons Viktor and Josef Hanus Mahler notary to sign the file, where Willym donates one-fifth of its factory land nephews.49 In is interesting to note that both brothers are no longer act as industrialists. Wilhelm and his wife Hedwig, therefore leaving more than half the share in the company and also notes interdict the transfer of donated shares in its favor. It is a guarantee that the factory, though not owned in part, intends to still have control. Probably Willym and his successors not quite trust. One thing is certain, the future of the game Německy Brod large textile factory entered two other people.

Development of the factory went on further. But the problem was getting the point. Land plot 715, where the factory stood, was very high, but began significantly nedostačovat. Therefore, logically built into the air. In 1925, the proposed plans to build-out second floor rooms with working above one of the buildings, two years later, another work on the building floor adjacent to it (both in the street Beckovského) and 1928 have added 2nd floor of a building in the street Svatovojtěšská.50 This in turn would require a number of other depots.51

Furthermore, since 26 July 1924,52 is considered a new chimney. It was decided that the current threat-foot around its low altitude and not fully purpose. The new building has started up to 45 meters and was therefore already in full compliance with the wishes of the city. Kolaudace took place on 13 března 1925.

At the end of 1929 an application was submitted and began to build.53

With the advent of Hanus and Josef Mahler the highest managerial positions in the factory, "Mahler Brothers" linked the purchase of houses near the factory. First nephews Willym sold the 2 October 1925 land in Brzorádově Street, where three years later, the brothers built the villa under no 407.54 After 27 September 1927 was purchased from the spouses Štefánkových House No. 50 in Svatovojtěšské Street (opposite the factory),55 and 19 January 1929 Franz Josef and sold Pechová Hanuš House No. 175 Street Beckovského.56

The exact reason for purchase is not accurately known. But it is clear that once again apply typically Mahlers' tendency to purchase the property at a lower price than what the house really had a moment when the owner had some problems. In the case of Frances Pechova the debts were for Štefánkových death in the family. As for house #407, seems to become a residential house for Josef, Willym and Hanus lived in the villa no 197.57

The beginning of the thirties brought a peak activity of the factory. Machinery has reached the venerable pieces of 1000 and the company found a job about the same number of people.58 The Mahler Brothers company's products, especially socks and stockings, under the symbols "Bramah" and "Atlantic" have become sought after abroad, which in 1932 was offset by 60–65% of all manufactured goods. It is worth noting a few significant and distant countries like England, Holland, Belgium, Sweden, Norway, Switzerland, Germany, Austria and Egypt.59

The economic crisis has severely affected the Německý Brod. Thanks to permission from the Ministry of Interior in 1932, the name "Factory ku knitting yarn and knitted goods Mahler Brothers in the Německý Brod" changed to "Mahler Brothers AKC. spol. 's share capital 3 000 000 CZK60 and the main bodies of becoming the General Meeting and the Management and the Supervisory Board. The factory was thus practically assured and could overcome the crisis, albeit with fits and starts working on an incomplete day and weekly working time and production was limited to the domestic market. These limitations, while helping the plant, but pobuřovala workers.

Communists had docked at the factory before 1926 and Mahler, though their leftist thinking they knew it had suffered.61 But they were strongly opposed to the emerging cell Communists. It therefore had to work secretly. Was well organized, the coming economic crisis is not very influential. Everything changed after 1932, when, thanks to forced labor, limited to adding the number of Communist Party workers. Their power finally grown up enough to be able to resist against any slightest resentment for even a single worker. Riots, until the marginal Mahler textile matter of life, took on an unprecedented scale.

According to the story of survivors62 demonstrations took place in such a way that players immediately after work wait before entering the factory and wait for departing workers. Before the police could intervene, their number has increased so that it did not go disperse. Examples include 26 February 193063 and 29 April 1931,64 which follows the factory workers from the communist officials expect the speech—Senator Bohuslav Kindl and second deputy Josef Novotný and called to leave from work. Novotny emphasized that "it is just in 14 days vyndají and Kindl appealed to worse conditions than in Austria. Reaction workers but not as expected. Ti is said that raděj will work, "because when they leave work, waiting for their place forsaken by one worker ten other workers" and they parted. But authorities over events nemávly hands as a people and against the two comrades began a criminal prosecution for the unauthorized public assembly.

But once the Communists neutajili planned strike and 10 February 193265 were arrested Karlem Clay, who allegedly told workers in a factory Božena Cross, "to say whether ženskejm factory zastavěj work and walk with us" and that it gave to the police.

Integrating production stockings already in the nineteenth-century factory in the crisis drew more than ever dependent on demand in the footwear industry, especially the Bata factories. One of the gravity of the situation came 2 and 3 January 1934, when 150 workers at the factory Mahler came to hinder the district office has already carried out due to the release of 21 women and against the planned next. Also called the promised vouchers for food. The factory was defended, it has sales and promised to work for a month at the expected order from the company Bata, even though in Zlín planned construction of its own hosiery factories. Stoking the unrest present Communist deputy Novotny and his thanks to cost the city napečeno 200 loaves of bread, since the vouchers are still absent from the Land Office.66

20 May 1937 was the strike about 420 factory workers to increase salaries by 40%, the negotiations by 28 May (worked but since May 21) and resulted in wage increases of 8%.67

At the same time ever at this time, all the responsibility for managing the plant gets into the hands Hanuše Mahler. Josef leaves the United States, and Willym is going to a well-deserved rest in his Prague apartment, where the age dies 12 srpna 1941 Hanus applied all the experience and talent gained many years of work in the field and under his leadership the company again after years of flourishing. Plants in the second half of the thirties underwent extensive renovations, in terms of technique has been modernized and expanded to include a new department—equipped modern dyer, mercerisárnu,68 and bělírnu Skarn.69

Events in September 1938 but were heralding major changes. Labor Mahler Brothers was among the most active hlasatelům defense of the Republic, the Nazis that they were aware of the subsequent occupation and has made numerous arrest warrants.70

Hanus Mahler suddenly changed their lives. Occupation 15 March 1939 it as a Jew finally forced to leave the company. At the Board meeting 28 března71 leaves its ranks he, his wife Edith and (in absentia) Josef's wife Anna Mahler. Hanuš be charged an annual pension 48 000 CZK (3 / 5 80 000 Kč), had free access to the factory and was available as a management consultant. All this assuming that it will stay in the Protectorate, which did not happen. That same year, leaving himself to Holland to prepare the ground for the subsequent arrival of his wife and son Jiří. But he will fail. He must, before the advancing German army to go to his brother to the United States and his family's removed in 10 August 1943 to Terezin. Jiří Mahler died in November 1943 on scarlet fever and Edith Mahler 5 September 1944 in a gas chamber in Auschwitz.

1.4 "PLEASE"

Mahler era is in the Německý Brod ended. Name of the factory as "Brothers of Mahler AKC. spol. to plant the knitwear and knitting machines, formerly Mahler Brothers, AKC. spol. "companies with Hanuše Mahler's length from the management of the factory could not be identified as Jewish property and remain the entire war in the hands of shareholders. Strong reputation and image of Mahler but forced the new management sign at least a hint of the past factories. However grudging the time the Jews did not retain anything, even this name. The 5 September general meeting of shareholders June 1941 the company name was changed to "PLEASE, factory for knitted goods and knitting machines, joint-stock company"72 shares are spread among a small group of eight-powerful men and they all drove.73 have the biggest impact, however, they had only two. The first was ing. Ulischberger Alfred, Czech German living in the local region, the director and leading man PLEASE local cell NSDAP (according to witnesses but a good man74) holding 2000 (20%) shares of the company. And second, largest shareholder, was Dr. Karel Paštika from Prague having a 74% share. He also won the repurchase of assets from the factory Mahler while for them to end all wars paying the debts that the factory had yet.75 The relationship between the two men were very good from the beginning, but gradually worsened.76 Perhaps it was still the growing plight of the war77 or ambition Karla Paštiky. Now his skills and orientation to the field were able to win major legal disputes with competitors and customers78 and the Paštika PLEAS able to keep the defeat of Germany at a relatively good level.79

The activity Karla Paštiky is to recognize that the textile factory as his. Its shares words prove superiority in matters of leadership, but it was enough. Just in May 1945 to get rid Ulischbergera, who was forced to him his 20% shareholding to pass, as he faced charges of aiding the Nazis and later was sentenced to eight years in prison.80

Karel Paštika himself but also faced accusations—in May 1945 the Red Army had to sell overpriced clothing, where they had a surplus81 were against it by creating a local decree by the Regional Court in Kutna Hora, and a factory was put under state administration. Director became 1 July 1945 Rudolf Mottl.82 Karlem Paštika acquitted after the factory management did not return, but all controlled by Mottl. He could also get rid of the two proposed representatives of the racing committee by National Authority, which had no mottle confidence.83

21st November 1946 to return to Czechoslovakia Hanuš Mahler and seeking a job in a factory. The provincial People's Committee to recommend it, because instead of losing because of racial discrimination. 24 listopadu84 were approved its adoption as a sales manager with the proviso that it does not interfere with the management of the factory.

Hanus has indeed been a thorn in the eye of Karlem Paštiky. He accused him of financial fraud allegedly carried out until 1939, when the black and won several hundred thousand crowns. Hanus refused to be put to shame and against the Paštiky came out to prove his collaboration with the Germans and illegally sold shed from the time of his accession to the factory.85

Hanus wanted to get back its shares from the Paštiky, and offered the workers a 49%. They have not already downloaded the second request for nationalization (from November 15, 1946, the first already 22 September 1945.86 However, this works council refuses to so succeed only Hanus field re-acquisition board, interrupted by his departure abroad in 1939. That he paid until 1948, after February when he is once again offered the job in a factory, but the workers insist on nationalization. Hanus Mahler going to Chrudim and then back to the United States, where it never returns to Czechoslovakia.

PLEAS be nationalized and 15 November 1949 became part of the knitting factories—national company in Jihlava.87

2. Heirs

2.1 Josef Mahler88

Josef Mahler, founder of the factory and the big man Německy Brod Mahler Dynasty died 28 September 1899, only a few dozen days before his next grandson was born on 12 November. Perhaps it is in honor and memory of his grandfather he was named Josef. Was druhorozeným son Viktorovým (Hanus was born May 23, 1898) and total third child (born 1896 and Margaret's third son Louis lived just seven months of 190389). Mother was Ida Mahler, born creamy, uncle and godfather of Leopold of Jihlava. Josef and his brother were at Německy Brod school, then broke into operation in the factory, but in 1916 came the tragedy in the form of death of father Viktor. Young children under his wing took his uncle Leopold and his proposed adulthood lived in Jihlava. Sometime after 1921, the second of them takes uncle Willym and again engaged in running and operation of the factory. Willym's efforts to encourage post-war modernization of the company posting Josef more than a year to the U.S. The reason it was not only possible to explore new working methods and general problems of the textile business. Willym also wanted to see how he could be his nephew self-sufficient. Gave him a small amount of travel and Josef was forced to eat from the beginning of relief work and only later succeeded on the track of the textile industry. Its success in penetrating these issues are reflected in the patent to the acquisition of color patterns on knitted products administered in the United States in 1927 and acquired three years later.90 Josef in the United States gained many contacts, excellent knowledge of English and priceless experience. And these new findings apply most to return home in the operation and implementation of production of knitting machines in my uncle's factory. Josef became a master of technical issues—the production and introduction of new machines, while Hanus was an expert in the field of management and administrative leadership.

Josef Mahler in 1925 married Hana Müller, daughter of industrialist from New Town and the Metují have two daughters—Hana (b. 1927) and Helen (b. 1931). They live in the Německý Brod, where he ranks among the higher social group. Josef himself was lionized as a "world expert" because his way overseas.91 His knowledge of English was also pretty unique and friends in the Německý Brod even created an English club where its members practiced in that language.92

Lived in his home town until 1937, when he discards all his share of the private property, and departs with his family permanently to the United States.93 Reasons for departure could be different, even economic, as Josef from the early thirties dealt with stereoscopic photography and cinematography, which has invested considerable resources.

And it is the pictures of what Josef has galvanized the rest of life in the United States. Unanswered question, but probably will, as Josef led to the stereoscopic photograph taken. Perhaps it would impact the economic crisis and stagnation, meaning that restrictions on the role of Josef and activities in the race, but more meaningful explanation is simple passion. And his amateur interests spread out more or less closed photographic clubs.

Josef Mahler took the problem of stereoscopic observation photos. The most common way to have the lens stereoscope, which was necessary to attach to the eye, and it wanted to avoid. Discovered that this is possible by appropriate arrangement of light bundles, which can be formed so as to not overlap. Everyone is used to display only one sub-frame stereoscopic image pairs. The eye therefore sees only the image, which has paprskového volume is located.94 And so he was in Czechoslovakia 8 November 1933 logged (and April 25, 1935 degree)95 patent on facilities for vivid vision stereoscopic images. Trade name of the device was Photoplastikon. Application followed by Austria (patent granted December 27, 1934) and the United States (granted February 26, 1935). These foreign patents have been unnecessary, Josef counted production outside Africa, which is shown in cooperation with C. Reichert in Vienna.

Constantly increasing the intensity of interest and work of Josef forced to employ a technician in 1936. This became a hatter Brodsky Karel Hlavac96 and now a year later, when the company began producing C. Reichert Photoplastikon, went to Vienna to oversee production. Although eventually produced a somewhat different structure Photoplastikonu, but it was a chance to produce in larger quantities since the war started.

On his discovery could Josef Mahler noted in the press, in particular article in the Prager Presse of 12 ledna 1934. Prototype device company implemented a Štys Srb. The Photoplastikon even a sample exhibited at the Prague autumn fair (PAE) in October 1935. The instrument was also exhibited the exhibition "100 Years of Photography" in 1939.

Photoplastikon therefore got into production and to the attention of professionals and the public. Josef to start the new job, not unlike being usnadněnému observing stereoscopic images. Polarized projection of cinematographic films led him to question whether this could not be seen as static images with no screening.97

Josef alluded to many problems both ov if necessary profit large enough polarizing filters. They were made for a photograph in the form of foil embedded between glass polarizing filter and for their great fragility were inappropriate for Josef. Learned with only attempts Edwin H. Land from the U.S., who experimented with polarizing filters and was looking for the way they manufacture, improved application and therefore sales. None of his attempts but not related to photography and only letter from Josef Mahler, which he wrote in February 1936, it states in the (then unknown to him) the issue of combining polarizing filters and stereoscopic photography.

But Josef Mahler could not count on the purchase of filters for Land, so he began in collaboration with Professor of Physical Chemistry, Brno Technical Josef Velisek in their development. Succeeded, using matrix crystals stored in plastic foil and mechanically oriented drag. Their production company founded by Josef Mahler Filtrapol, registered in the Commercial Register Czechoslovak 8 July 1937 (and internationally October 10, 1937), where he worked eight staff.

As soon as a suitable foil is available, nothing stopped Josef in the next activity. Now it was necessary to make the foil and the photographic image, using etching.98 The first picture of the implementation of the Josef Mahler managed to make the 26 June 1937 still in Německý Brod.

Probably sometime in this time Josef Mahler received a check for $1000 and an invitation from Edwin H. Land in the United States at the turn of 1937-1938 left Czechoslovakia. Family followed him until April 1938. Furthermore Land is expecting higher U.S. officers, because the American inventor of the importance of Mahler discoveries pointed army. Perhaps it is with its financial support and the rapid development of cooperation with the Land-Mahler 11 May 1938 appears vektografu design patent No. 2,203,687, which is still mentioned Josef resident in the Německý Brod.99 Vektograf the U.S. Army very quickly incorporated and applied to a large extent, in time of war.

Josef became a research worker physical Polaroid E.H. Land Corporation, where the disagreement went in 1946 (see below). Then he joined the American Optical Co. until 1964 and then worked as a consultant and lectured on his field. The sixtieth birthday, he was named an honorary member of the German Society for Stereoscopy.

Changes in the profession are also reflected in its homes. Between 1940-49 he lived in Brookline, Massachusetts, 1950-51 and 1952-54 in Southport in Westport (Connecticut). Then in 1966 he returned to Massachusetts, but the city Fiskdale. And the last stage of his life spent in California in Laguna Hills and Riverside, where he died in 1981.

But despite all the visible successes still Josef Mahler forgotten inventor. The importance of his work is understood by many and were able to empower her to the exclusion of Josef's authorship. The first of them was himself Edwin H. Land, who after several joint patents with Josef Mahler began his findings apply to their own inventions. Just alert to the possibility of polarizing filters in photography has led to attempts by the so-called Land's instant photography process (known as Polaroid). Moreover Josef Mahler worked at E.H. Land and further develop the possibilities of photography at the expense of their own prestige and fame (although in the U.S. by the end of life of 25 patents filed). Edwin H. Land, thanks to this day regarded as a pioneer and even the creator vektografu. Josef, "robbed" of ideas from Land, leave immediately after the war.

But even Photoplastikon left in his hands. After 1945 in different countries (eg Italy) discovered a copy is still valid regardless of patents. And even at "Laser 95" made in 1995, he was introduced to the method of observation bezbrýlového stereoscopic television, which was almost identical with the Mahler patents of 1933.

And vektograf in the fifties remember the Czechoslovak army, which had the whole process again by Mahler's patents developed in the secret task VÚZORT Veronika, without it ever used in practice.

Josef Mahler remains among the authors cited significant photographic patents. His bad luck all invented in the wild during the thirties and forties, when the threat of Nazism, war and postwar chaos completely changed the order of the world and its perception. Josef But he gives the impression that more than money or prestige of his high regard for its own invention and perfection is directly consumed with passion for the cause. This is evident from the narration of Rudolfa Firkušného who with Josef sailed on a ship to the U.S. in 1938.100 each on a steamboat passionately talked about his inventions and was so excited by the passengers considered it to be all mouth and did not believe him. I can stop a big man with a great idea.

2.2 Willym Mahler

The last of the sons of Artur Mahler was born 3 November 1909 and received the name Willym Otto Mahler. Like his distant cousin, Josef, he also belonged to the third generation living in Mahler Německý Brod—both financially and positionally secured, unchecked racially or religiously and weighted at the city's population. Therefore, his interests can be directed outside the family business, led by his grandfather Filip and then his father, Artur, even though organizational skills inherited from his ancestors he finally provide a position his father's heir position.

High standard of living for the family, however, did not prevent Willym apply their talents elsewhere than in his father's shop. The chance arose in the local town football. Organized football was in the Německý Brod operated since 1911 and 30 August 1923, which held one of the meetings and providing for general meetings (and where Willym Mahler was first elected as a trustee and clerk of the course), has undergone major development.101

But the time when Willym enters the narrower tip line Brodsky football is a sport for the management of crisis. Manifest problems with players, financing and so threatened the whole future of football. This is an opportunity for Willym and his organizational ability. At an extraordinary general meeting 15 June 1924 it was elected to the committee and a year later, Secretary.102 turning point was a football town in September 1926 celebrating 15 years in sports and soccer Německý Brod came to limelight when he wrote glowingly about her and the local press.103 to 1927 enhanced team AFK Německý Brod enter a friendly match against AC Sparta Praha on the newly redesigned playground "The Losích" Willym Mahler as still as secretary. He decided to broaden its scope and, together with Cermak and Jan Ulrich Augustin leads women handball section, but which in 1932 lost their attractiveness because of the low number of possible competing teams.

In 1933, during the economic crisis, the general meeting remained in command of four football faithful, who did not want to let sport fit. One of them was just Willym and took the lead organizer of the club functions as well as businesses and secretary. Need to go to extremes to maintain the functionality demonstrated by the annual football Distanc work of Willym Mahler in 1936 for failure to comply with sporting regulations. Search refund was more than difficult.104 But the year is extended to life through world events and popular Willym that Brodsky held a football in its most critical moments, leaving him forever.105

In March 1939 came the Nazi occupation and all activities must cease Willym—except for football and activity Brod's Jewish religious community and correspondence to the press (including the People's newspaper).106 was isolated in the trade until the 15 June 1942, when the last of the family leaving for Theresienstadt.107

Here begins the last stage of a remarkable life Willym. Throughout their stay they wrote a diary detailing everything he saw and experienced—food, poverty, suffering, as well as concerts and entertainment.108 Worked at the post office and economic governance and have the leisure to be afraid to use the superficial and loves sex. He has become bohemian, cynically commenting on the events around him, without any mental deroucí a reflection on the surface of vital-egocentric instinct for knowing the fate of his hopeless.109 his life ultimately ends in a gas chamber at Auschwitz on 28 září 1944.110


Two Mahler family for three generations helped shape the history and form of the Německý Brod. Since the eighteen-sixties, when the last stop restrictions on the Jewish population is more than noticeable expansion of their successful activities. The small village of Kaliste, where the family lived on doorstep selling and distillers of alcohol is gradually getting its members to large cities and experienced obchodnickými tricks and methods of quickly building a family environment. The Německý Brod begins where the Kaliště ended grocer. Soon, however, the two brothers find a much higher level of applications. Filip building warehouses and sales of grain and Josef based textile workshop. Building a business takes them to name all the time the rest of life. This all happens in the early twentieth century, and then picked their sons. They already have a much easier task—and businesses are launching the prosperous Jews are considered part of the population of the city and respectability names Mahler gets brittle. Textile workshop has been converted into a large and growing factory employing tens to hundreds of people and Artur printing language other than as a weighted merchant. Equally good results of its operations to other regions of Mahler's other world, where applicable as a dentist, and industrialists composers. Time, this period may end in mid-twenties of the twentieth century.

Peak Mahler dynasty in Německý Brod came advent of third generation, the grandchildren of the founders Josef and Filip acquired the family business and very involved in them. Unlike their predecessors activity is not limited only to the inherited business. They are already members of the elite cities have their hobbies, which already play a subordinate role in life, since businesses are carried out without their direct participation. It is time to experiment with photo management and football club. Respect for people is undeniable Mahler a "golden age" would have continued but for the arrival of the global economic crisis and later Nazism. The establishment of joint stock companies to destroy decades of full control of the factory Mahler and crisis reduces consumption of goods. Enterprises remain.

Nazi occupation, then the influence of Jewish families in Brod makes final dot. Except brothers Viktor and Josef disposed of all the kindred of the city and even post-war situation return Mahler allow. It ends the life and operation of two large families, which, after eighty years of history of the Německý Brod involved in its development. It remains to them only by their work.

Factory "Mahler Brothers" could be employed in the early thirties to 1000 people, equivalent to tenth of the population of the then Německý Brod. Produced and exported high quality products to many parts of the world, owners are afraid to expand and modernize production. Similarly prospered and Filip, who transformed his father's grocery store in single-focused company, which was one of the most important city. Culturally, however, Mahler's heyday in the city involved at least. Can it affect their Jewish origin, ignoring the Czech-German national struggle late 19th century and only interested in their own (or the Jewish community) issues. They were masters of trade. They literally smell good and were able to purchase their property to expand at an unprecedented pace. The factory, if somewhat notorious, has also become an important center of Communist cells. Possible strength and expansion of the radical Left of Mahler's obviously quite underestimated, leaving the communist cell blossom. Finally, a complete collapse caused by Nazi ideology, which developed a hatred for all the Israelite confession.

From today's perspective on the link and the importance of Mahler in Německý Brod can say that they are more or less forgotten. Nazi or Communist regime did not want Jewish bourgeois capitalist factories and traders, and now they are just old-timers remember. But it is necessary to say that good and some nostalgia. Above all, communism could this family almost completely eradicated from the minds of people that their name seems to be something familiar, but so far. Many people today look and marveled at Villa No. 197, without knowing what is past. In 2003 it was declared a cultural monument and began its reconstruction. Still dominates the town center has a new factory with No. 2045, home to numerous companies. Still working PLEAS moved into new production areas.

Interest on the Jews in Německý Brod, but recently growing and Mahler can not be forgotten. They know they most of them.

Picture Annex

Promotional brochure with portrait company around 1916 and Villa No. 197 (author's personal archives).

Factory "Mahler Brothers" in the thirties of the 20th century.
(Hare, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. Volume 1. Německy Brod Region. Německý Brod 1939, page 28)

House No. 10 City (fifth from left) in 1894 and the current status of 2007 (fifth from left)
(SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, a collection of photographs, Carton 9 photos 57th)

Factory fire in 1908 and the current form in 2007, street Svatovojtěšská.
(author's personal archive)

The current form of the factory, "Mahler Brothers" of 2007
corner Svatovojtěšské and Beckovského.

House No. 40 Filip Mahler during World War II
(HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971, p. 31).

Villa No. 197 (2007 before reconstruction), the residence of Viktor, Willym and Hanuše Mahler.

Villa No. 407 (2007), the residence of Josef Mahler to his departure in 1937.


Sources and Literature


SOA Zámrsk
PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, sign I-IV.
Cadastral Office Havlíčkův Brod
SOkA Havlíčkův Brod
OSHB, a collection of documents.
Collection of photographs.
AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M/1
OÚHB, Presidiální writings.
OÚHB, Census Havlíčkův Brod 1880, 1890, 1900, 1910, 1921.

Statistical sources:

Ambroz, Egelbelt, BLECHA, Dominik: full directory, history and memorability of the royal city of the Německý Brod. Německý Brod, 1892.
Curly, Václav: A complete directory of political district německobrodského. Německý Brod 1903.
ŠVEJDA, O.: A new guide to Německý Brod. Německý Brod 1914.
Trcka, Jan: Directory of Německý Brod. Německý Brod 1931.


Cesta Vysočiny (Highland Way)
Náš kraj (Our Region)
Pravda (True)
Respekt (Regard)


HART, Ivan: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971.
Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný proceedings. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, p. 179-191.
Team of authors: History of the Pleas np 1885. Part 1 to 3 Havlíčkův Brod 1985.
NICE, Tomáš: A History of the Jews in Bohemia and Moravia. Praha 1993.
SEIFERT, Karlem Luke, PETR, František: Memorable sheet from 1860. In: Reports of the Municipal Museum in the Německý Brod 1926-1930. Německý Brod 1931, p. 77-79.
SCHLAICHERTOVÁ, Dana: Architecture and Urbanism 1848-1938 Havlíčkův Brod. Havlíčkův Brod 1998.
Sochr, Jiří: Havlíčkův Brod and its surroundings. Havlíčkův Brod 1992.
SVĚRÁK, Vlastimil; Martíšková, Nora: The Beginning of trip: Gustav Mahler and Jihlava in archival sources. Jihlava 2000.
Vošická, Jaroslav et al.: 50 years of football in Havlíčkův Brod 1911 to 1961. Havlíčkův Brod 1961.
Zajic, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. 1st vol. Region německobrodský. Německý Brod 1939.

Personal archive:

Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec.
Telling Mrs. Věry Beránkové, flat Beckovského 2197, Havlíčkův Brod.
Author's personal archive.


1. Official web site of the city:
Velké Meziříčí:

2. Oldest Humpolecká workshops: Skirts substances Josefa Smrčky (1856)
factory wool Jindřicha Bartáka (1832)
draper Karel Trnka (1884)
factory to Bratří Jaklové wool (1905)
They were the vanguard of the largest textile boom of the textile industry in Humpolec the First Republic.
(Hare, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. Volume 1. Německobrodský Region. Německý Brod 1939)

3. Taken primarily from publications Sochr, GEORGE: Havlíčkův Brod and its surroundings. Havlíčkův Brod 1992.

4. In particular, 10 July 1866, when the city has undergone over 60 000 soldiers Elbe Army General Hervarta of Bittenfeldu.

5. The operation was launched 1872.

6. Since 1945, residents could travel to Humpolec a nearby larger villages Habr, Czech Bela and drains. With Brod Jihlava connect 1 June 1949 and transport the newly created firm expanded bus.

7. For completeness, although it is not directly see the work, mention other emerging factory in the city. Climatic and soil conditions highlands are great for growing potatoes, and is therefore quite logical that some industry specialization go in that direction. In the nineties created starch factory, and John V. Wiedenhoffera Vonka later linked under the name "Dextre." 1880 was also rebuilt city brewery with an annual production of 18 000 hl of beer. Developing trade and business supported the establishment of urban societies (1862) and later the district of banks (1883).

8. NICE, Tomáš: A History of the Jews in Bohemia and Moravia. Praha 1993.

9. Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec.

10. Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec.

11. That same year, allowed the Jews freedom of movement and settlement. (NICE, Tomas: A History of the Jews in Bohemia and Moravia. Praha 1993.)

12. SEIFERT, Karlem Luke, PETR, František: Memorable sheet from 1860. In: Reports of the Municipal Museum in the Německý Brod 1926-1930. Německý Brod 1931, p. 77-79.

13. His wife was Marie Herrmann from the Ledeč Sázavou that marriage has brought a large dowry in the form of 3 500 zl. so he could buy in Kaliště House No. 9 with the pub trade and second son, was born in 1860 still Kaliště was none other than the musical genius of Gustav Mahler.

SVĚRÁK, Vlastimil; Martíšková, Nora: The Beginning of trip: Gustav Mahler and Jihlava in archival sources. Jihlava 2000.

14. Frequently, however, were Jews living in the city even before. While states 1377 Jewish Pesoldus (Pesoldus judeus, nostrae Civitatis Incol) owns Hadrpurk Court, but that's all. The city of 18 books century, but many debentures německobrodských burghers cross-country to the Jews, mainly from Bela, Krupa, Humpolce, Stoke, Polná, or Jeníkov Střítež. (SEIFERT, Karlem Luke, PETR, František: Memorable sheet from 1860. In: Reports of the Municipal Museum in the Německý Brod 1926-1930. Německý Brod 1931, p. 78) The same article indicates that the Jews were not tolerated in the Německý Brod since 1637, but Thomas Nice states that Německý Brod became a "closed city" between the years 1745-1746. (PĚKNÝ, Tomas: A History of the Jews in Bohemia and Moravia. Praha 1993, p. 82.)

15. For better orientation closer rough description of the town. At this time, Ford divided into three parts—the historical heart of the city (simply called Town) clearly demarcated walls since the Middle Ages. The upper part of the suburbs was the city, which, while at the same (right) run Sázava, but built around the walls due to lack of space inside. A third part, Lower suburb, was "the river," i.e. on its left bank. Each part of the houses marked the one, therefore it is necessary to describe each building and noted neighborhood, where it is.

16. In events involved the Catholic Church, and preached about it in church and Frantisek Vanecek man identified as the seller Jews forced, under pressure and price. (Highland Drive, 28 1. 2003, p. 5) Another and perhaps more serious problem has been the machinations of the house was acquired. Šimon and Maria purchased the property for 715 gold, transferred it to his son David, who apparently first came up with them to Německý Brod and then in Jihlava. David House immediately "sold" back to his mother for only 915 gold. Speculation, therefore, Mahler was able to increase house prices by 200 gold. (SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OSHB, a collection of documents, CD 2027/1861.)

17. Author's personal archive HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971, p. 31. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, land register, the cadastral map of the city Německý Brod, building plot 201 and 202.

18. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OSHB, a collection of documents, CD 119/1865.

19. In this work, I decided to use počeštělá name, or at least those which are externally presented, due to better orientation when referring to possible sources where the near-perfect presence.

20. It was the fulfillment of an agreement between the spouses and Jakešovými Filip Mahler at 30 4. 1864. (SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OSHB, a collection of documents, CD 340/1869.) The house itself was architecturally identical, but hooked up to "L" from the top toward the street Hus and of course more spacious than the original House No. 41 and is therefore not surprising that the family moved into it.

21. Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec.

22. Ambroz, Egelbelt, BLECHA, Dominik: full directory, history and memorability of the royal city of the Německý Brod. Německý Brod, 1892.

23. The barn was purchased for 750 gold, and was subsequently sold in 1906 was emerging Rolnickému team for 44 000 crowns, which has been offered a barn Filip Mahler, to not have to build new stores. Peasant cooperative like to take the offer and put just the office. The problem remains, where Filip Mahler stored on your flour. In 1908, in press (Our Region, 1 8. 1908, p. 4) announcing the theft was reported in the warehouse Filip Mahler at the station. Mahler, however, at this time no other barn at neighborhood stations already possessed and it is possible that the peasant cooperative had an agreement on the storage of their material in its former warehouse, or rather it is a real undiscovered Mahler ownership of property books. Another warehouse is bought up in 1910 with a half-cousin, Artur Willym. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OSHB, a collection of documents, No. 12479/1889, 1160/1906 CD, CD 664/1910.

24. Curly, Václav: A complete directory of political district německobrodského. Německý Brod 1903. ŠVEJDA, O.: A new guide to Německý Brod. Německý Brod 1914.

25. Our region, 4 Jan. 1908, p. 4.

26. Our region, 1 Aug. 1908, p. 4.

27. Our region, 8 Aug. 1908. p. 4.

28. Pravda, 28 Nov. 1896, p. 1.

29. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, Havlíčkův Brod, insert 281st

30. Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec.

31. One memorial at Kolin stated that he died during the war (probably in Terezin), but all the post-war transfer of property back to Mahler talking about him as an employee MRG, which is nonsense. Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD CD 487/1947 and 451/1948.

32. But even so, Josef Mahler bought a house well below the price. Thanks to the talent, so typical of Mahler, to obtain property and wealth they waited for the problems and disputes in the Family Event, owner of the house, after John Events and then came up with an offer that amounted to two thirds of the true value of the house (3000 of 4590 gold).

33. Ambroz, Egelbelt, BLECHA, Dominik: full directory, history and memorability of the royal city of the Německý Brod.Německý Brod, 1892.

34. And also to have strong reasons. In 1893, the expanded dyeing workshop and in 1894 was added room for adjusting yarn and authorized construction třicetimetrového chimney. Year 1895 brought the construction of additional floors on the building.

35. All workers in the factory along with their families lived. In 1881 it was around 100 people (at about 30 workers), and ten years later, thanks to the development of disciplines (and přestavěním present barn in 1888, housing) for over 180. After 1900, however, not a single factory worker, but, paradoxically, a Mahler family, only his family coachman Francis Stefanek, which is here for eight years, moved after the death of Josef. House No. 10 began to rent and they sold it in 1910.

36. Builders, who, through their actions helped to develop the factory Brethren Mahler was quite a lot. Surprisingly, not dominated most important and most respected builder Josef Šupich that Mahler had built for themselves only in the early seventies, but now his new rival Franz (a Otakar) Fox of Chotěboře. The fact that Josef Mahler supported Fox and not Šupicha, with the suspension and newspapers (Pravda, 31 8. 1895, page 2). Furthermore, it was Bruno Bauer from Vienna (about 1910) already mentioned Karlem Ješina (first years of the 20th century), a pair of Jan Hlavac and Robert Dvoracek (20 years of the 20th century) and Eduard Nedbal (turn 20 to 30 years 20th century). Lišková court, however, remained the builder most of the lifetime of the factory.

37. SCHLAICHERTOVÁ, Dana: Architecture and Urbanism 1848-1938 Havlíčkův Brod. Havlíčkův Brod 1998.

38. Pravda, 29 Feb. 1908, page 6.

39. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, list 230.

40. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, list 129.

41. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, leaves 143, 159, 160.

42. 10 M / 1, leaves 121, 143, 200.

43. Zajic, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. 1. vol. Region německobrodský. Německý Brod 1939, p. 28.

44. Leopold died in 1922 and was buried as well as his brother Viktor německobrodském the Jewish cemetery.

45. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OSHB, a collection of documents, CD 365/16. Contract addresses the allocation of assets, which amounted to 26 March 1916 was estimated to amount 291 677 CZK 63 cents (SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, kart. 1 sign. I, inv 2 / 6) of which belonged to Viktor is a ratio of 146 000 CZK. After deduction of the two claims Savings banks king. Německý Brod paid his nephews Willym 84 000 crowns with the fact that all assets, including factories villa No. 197 from that moment belongs to him alone.

46. In any case, but you can not talk about a missile launch immediately after the war. Mahler Brothers had the same problems with the outlet, and the general devaluation of the currency crises of the Versailles Treaty. That slow transition and acclimation to the new situation (for Peace, Africa) is still evident in the autumn of 1922, the Provincial Board circulars to government policy includes reports on unemployment in the district of factories and factory Mahler between 11 September and 25 November dismissed 150 employees in a limited employment. (SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB Presidiální writings cards. 6 sign. N-3, No. 461, 462, 639.)

47. Zajic, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. 1. vol. Region německobrodský.Německý Brod 1939, p. 28.

48. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, leaves 269, 276, 281.

49. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD 815/25. Interdict the transfer was about eight years later canceled (Cadastral Office Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD 897/33).

50. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, leaves 337, 490.

51. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, leaves 350, 410, 428, 460, 536.

52. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, Nov 7. It was a log building office. Interesting is the fact that as a representative Mahler Brothers is listed Hanus Mahler and evidence for the influence of Viktorových sons to run the factory before entering into a contract of 6 October 1925 (see footnote 33).

53. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, AMHB, carton 381, inv no 2132, sign. 10 M / 1, list 519.

54. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD 803/25 and 877/28.

55. The house was bought by now, not the brothers themselves, for a total price of CZK 50 000 (Cadastral Office Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD 945/27.).

56. The value of the house was set at 95 500. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD 74/29.

57. Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor.In: Havlíčkobrodsko 16. Vlastivědný sborník. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, p. 179.

58. Zajic, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. 1st vol. Region německobrodský. Německý Brod 1939, p. 28.

59. Zajic, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. 1. vol. Region německobrodský. Německý Brod 1939, p. 28.

60. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, a collection of documents, CD 134/35. Capital consisted of equipment and building families Mahler included £ 990 000 and all machinery arsenal public companies factories for 2 010 000 CZK. The total number of shares were 10 000 for 300 CZK and Willym received them in 1980 and Josef Hanus of 660 (SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed I. inv 1 / 1.)

61. HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971, p. 38.

62. HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům.Havlíčkův Brod 1971, s. 39.

63. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB, Presidiální writings, kart. K-1, No. 87, 182.

64. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB, Presidiální writings, kart. 7, sign. K-1, No. 354.

65. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB, Presidiální writings, kart. 7, sign. K-1, 108.

66. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB, Presidiální writings, kart. N-12, No. 84, 99, 105.

67. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB, Presidiální writings, kart. 19, sign. S-9, No. 572.

68. Mercerization—workflow, in which cotton silk fabric takes gloss and increase its strength. (

69. Zajic, J.; Zlámal, V.: Czech-Moravian Highlands. 1st vol. Region německobrodský. Německý Brod 1939, p. 28.

70. SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB, Presidiální writings, kart. 22, sign. P-25, No. 1311, 1312, the 1430. HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971, p. 40-42.

Even during the occupation, but there was defiance in the form of inscriptions on the walls of the factory "Czech people's desire to join the Soviet Union" of 22 Oct. 1939 (SOkA Havlíčkův Brod, OÚHB, Presidiální writings cards. 7, sign. L-8, No. 1156.)

71. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed I. inv 1 / 2. 72. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed I. inv 2 / 5.

PLEAS stands PLE and humanitarian and kciová S polečnost.

73. Dr. Francis Kacirek, director Vitkovice Ironworks, Dr. Anton Carp, lawyer, Josef Stadelbauer, director of the Czech eskomptní Bank, Oldřich Kratochvíl, Chief Clerk, Jaroslav Kocian, businessman, Karl Pospa, a bank employee, Ing. Alfred Ulischberger, Director PLEAS, Dr. Karlem Paštika, Lawyer.

74. He was the first of a series of directors who began to occupy the family villa Mahler No. 197, which is regularly held large parties of Nazi officers and officials, but he did that out of necessity, not joy. (The story Ms Věry Beránkové, flat Beckovského 2197, Havlíčkův Brod.)

75. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed I. No 2/8-10 inv.

76. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, sign II. inv 1 / 30.

77. For example, in 1943 the firm was forced to take a loan of 250 000 Reichsmarks (Cadastral Office Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD 636/43.).

78. It is worth noting dispute with Oskar Ulman as early as 1940 (SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed inv I. 2 / 17.).

79. Days of May 1945 were quiet at the factory. Just 5. 197, where he lived two prokuristé United Josef and Josef's nephew. Both the German police dragged into the woods near Bezděkov a shot.
(The story Ms Věry Beránkové, residing Beckovského 2197, Havlíčkův Brod.
Commemorative plaque on the wall of the factory, Beckovského 2045, Havlíčkův Brod.)

80. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed inv I. 2 / 12. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, sign II. inv 1 / 30.

81. It sold for 1 656 035 CZK 50 and the books he just 1 220 999 CZK 20. (SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed I. inv 2 / 18.). That, on the sale of the accounts Vojenstorg military glove over 200 000 crowns, but which, for the increased cost assigned to private firms (HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971, p. 43-44.).

82. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, sign II. inv 1 / 31.

83. HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům.Havlíčkův Brod 1971, p. 44.

84. HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971, p. 46.

85. SOA Zámrsk, PLEAS as Havlíčkův Brod 1916-1948, signed inv I. 2 / 12.

86. Ever since the beginning of the war in the factory employed around 400 staff, but even then the third request in December 1946 was rejected. HART, IVAN: Flowers are jubilantům. Havlíčkův Brod 1971, s. 44, 46, 47.

87. Land Registry Havlíčkův Bord, terriers, Havlíčkův Brod, insert 286.

88. Information taken primarily from Article Jiracek, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný proceedings. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, p. 179–191.

89. Louis Mahler lived from 6 April-2 November 1903 (Havlíčkův Brod, Ledečská Street Jewish Cemetery, grave 30).

90. Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný sborník. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, p. 182 and 183.

91. Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný sborník. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, p. 183 and 184.

92. English at that time was not such a phenomenon as it is today. Of course there was then due to the inter-war German and focus on France and French. Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný sborník. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, p. 184.

93. Land Registry Havlíčkův Brod, terriers, a collection of documents, CD 1220/37.

94. Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný proceedings. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, image on p. 190.

95. Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný proceedings. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, image on p. 184.

96. In his testimony, as in the article that dealt with Josef Mahler and stereoscopic cinema on color film 9,5 mm.

97. The essence is that the photographic image is converted to polarization, that is the blackening of the changes to the degree of polarization of light in that location where the image. Such an image appears as nekontrastní eye, contrast observations obtained using appropriately shot polarization filter. Combining these two stereoscopic image pairs of frames, each with different direction of polarization, compiled over themselves and documented cross-layer, the viewer can watch glasses with polarizing filters oriented correctly so freely to see the big picture vividly.

98. The foil was deposited a thin layer of wax and pushed into her warm metal autotypický Štoček photographic film, consisting of fine acting points and flats. On the wax is dissolved, exposing polarizing layer, which can be generated as follows odkrytými points etch. Stereoscopic pair of images on film with mutually perpendicular orientation of polarization is translated through you and provided reflecting basis.

99. Jiráček, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný proceedings. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, image on p. 187.

100. Pianist sailing to the U.S. on his first tour and tells his memories of Dr. Zdenek Mahler (Jiracek, Milica: Josef Mahler, forgotten inventor. In: 16th Havlíčkobrodsko Vlastivědný proceedings. Havlíčkův Brod 2001, p. 186-7).

101. Ironically, the pioneers Brodsky football student-scholars, played its first match between the years 1902-1907 on the site called "The Ramparts" between the street Brzorádova and Beckovského—that is, in places where in 1907 Willym Mahler began to build its new villa no 197 footballers and therefore had to move to a new place called "Old Elk." It is possible that this site helped them gain Wilhelm Mahler, who is likely to find in football a pleasure.

102. I can not say with certainty what was on the development impact of Willym Brodsky football family background and whether any funds were traveling at this time, the resources of his father and uncle, Willym Artur. But it can be expected. (Vošická, JAROSLAV et al.: 50 years of football in Havlíčkův Brod 1911 to 1961. Havlíčkův Brod 1961, p. 7).

103. Vošická, JAROSLAV et al.: 50 years of football in Havlíčkův Brod 1911 to 1961. Havlíčkův Brod 1961, p. 8.

104. Vošická, JAROSLAV et al.: 50 years of football in Havlíčkův Brod 1911 to 1961. Havlíčkův Brod 1961, p. 13.

105. For completeness, it should be noted event in 1937, when the company slid sports ring Bramah (Mahler XI) with management Himmer, Uhlir, Kubat, Zadina, Hovorka, Shoemaker and others. It was a factory team, "Mahler Brothers" indicative of the interest of the whole sport Mahler family. In 1940 the name was changed to SK playing II. class VŽF. A year later, the team merged with the Estates Eleven "railroad" which Brod football served as the site organization and sport.

106.Cesta Vysočiny, 28 Jan. 2003, p. 5.

107. Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec.

108. Cesta Vysočiny, 28 Jan. 2003, p. 5.

The diary became an important source for the game Arnost Goldflam "Sweet Theresienstadt" that the American director Damien Gray on board Archa Theater in the early November 1996. This is the story of two men in the Terezin ghetto Mahnera (Willym Mahler) and Kurt Gerrold (Kurt Gerron), their different attitudes to life under the full control of their torturers-Nazis and how dealing with it. "They are thrown into the existence of two extreme situations in which every act of self leading to a physical immediately becomes morally problematic." (Respect, 11 Nov. 1996, p. 19).

109. Respekt, 11 Nov. 1996, p. 19.

110. Personal archive prof. Jiří Rychetsky, Hálkova 926, Humpolec.